Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory condition affecting the esophagus (the tube that connects the throat with the stomach). The esophagus contains too high a number of eosinophils, an allergic white blood cell. This causes several gastrointestinal symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, nausea,vomiting and reflux.
Diagnosis: To confirm the diagnosis requires an upper endoscopy and biopsy. Unfortunately, no less invasive procedures are available to diagnose or monitor EoE.
The Role of Allergies: The majority of individuals with EoE have family histories of allergies and symptoms of one or more allergic disorders such as asthma, nasal allergies, atopic dermatitis or food allergy. Food allergy is a major cause of EoE in children, and a less probable factor in adult EoE. Environmental allergies such as dust mites, animals, pollens and molds may also play a role.
Treatment of EE:
– Diet. Avoidance of common allergens (milk, egg, soy, wheat, nuts and fish) may eliminate the symptoms and underlying inflammation of EoE. Atopy patch testing may help to guide food choices.
– Medications. Steroids are effective at shutting down inflammation and eosinophil production. Local delivery helps to lessen side effects. This is achieved by swallowing those steroids indicated for asthma (either a fluticasone inhaler or budesonide for the nebulizer machine).
The initial diagnosis of EoE can be overwhelming. Working closely with your healthcare team is the best way to assure you are receiving proper care. Additionally, families often benefit from participation in support groups, such as the American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED) at www.apfed.org.